MCS Coca-Cola Plant

Хаяг: Gachuurt Road 104 Amgalan 13260, Bayanzurkh district, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Phone: (976) 70165555
Fax: (976) 70165500

Email: info@mcscocacola.mn


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Carbonation
What is carbonation?

Carbonation occurs when carbon dioxide – the natural gas we breathe out and what plants take in – is pushed into liquids under pressure. This process puts the bubbles into a variety of sparkling beverages we enjoy today.

Where did carbonation come from?

Naturally carbonated water has been consumed for thousands of years, dating back to Greek and Roman times. In the 1500s, the village of Spa in Belgium became one of the first destination resorts famous for its mineral hot springs and inspiring the name “spa” for such health resorts. Spa attracted people to use carbonated water for its refreshing nature and because it was thought to aid in digestion.

The development of the first man-made sparkling beverage is credited to the British scientist Joseph Priestly in the latter part of the 18th century. He invented a method of “pushing” carbon dioxide into water by dissolving it under pressure, creating fairly long-lasting bubbles. This is basic aeration – Dr. Priestly was in essence “aerating” the water, similar to how we aerate bread dough. By the mid-1800s, food scientists began adding sugar, fruit juices and flavors to sparkling water for refreshment and enjoyment rather than any perceived benefits.

Dental Health
Sparkling beverage leads to tooth decay?

Good dental hygiene is an important way to maintain dental health. All foods and beverages with sugar or similar carbohydrates can play a role in tooth decay. When teeth are exposed to acids, dental erosion can occur. Many sparkling beverages  have acid contents similar to orange, apple and grape juice.  So brush your teeth, see your dentist regularly and follow his/her advice.

Caffeine
How much caffeine is in a bottle of Coca-Cola or Diet Coke/Coca-Cola Light?

The level of caffeine in Coca-Cola and Diet Coke/Coca-Cola Light is relatively small--about 24 and 32 mg of caffeine per 250 mL, respectively. This is significantly less than the amount present in an equivalent serving of drip-style brewed coffee. (See chart above.) The level of caffeine in most sparkling beverages is well below the amount permitted by regulatory agencies, such as the U.S. FDA. For those who prefer beverages without caffeine, we offer caffeine-free sparkling beverages.

Energy balance
How many calories should a person consume or burn in a day?

The number of calories we should consume varies from person to person, and depends on factors such as, gender, age, body size, and level of physical activity. The amount a man will need at 20 years of age will differ from what he needs at 40 years of age. Managing one‘s weight depends on a balance between calories consumed and calories burned.

How can I find information about how many calories are in Coca-Cola products?

Start with the labels on our products. As a matter of Company policy, we provide nutrition labeling for nearly all of our products, even where this information isn‘t required by law. And, we were the first global beverage company to commit to including energy (calorie) information on the front of nearly all our packages by the end of 2011. We want to make it easy for consumers to be able to choose the beverages that best meet their individual tastes and needs.

How can Coca-Cola’s beverages be part of a balanced, sensible diet?

All foods and beverages can have a place in a sensible, balanced diet combined with regular physical activity. But it‘s important to remember that all calories count, no matter what food or beverage they come from, including those from our caloric beverages. Experts agree that the key to maintaining a healthy weight is balancing calories consumed, with calories burned.

When it comes to managing calories, the key is how much of any food or beverage we consume, and how often we consume it. Within this context, it‘s important to ensure that the daily diet provides the nutrients needed for good health, without exceeding individual calorie budgets. The nutrition information provided on food and beverage labels is a good resource for managing daily calorie and nutrient intake.

Sweeteners
What kinds of caloric sweeteners are used in foods and beverages?

There are several caloric sweeteners used in food and beverage products. The most common are sucrose (table sugar), high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), fructose, glucose and honey. All are carbohydrates and all provide energy that is measured in calories.

What is HFCS?

HFCS – or to use its full ingredient name, high fructose corn syrup – is a carbohydrate sugar that provides 4 calories (17 kilojoules) per gram – the same number of calories as sucrose (table sugar). It is made from corn and is used to sweeten most caloric sparkling beverages in the United States and some other countries. (Schorin, 2006)

How is HFCS different from sucrose?

HFCS and sucrose have similar proportions of fructose and glucose, which makes their sweetness nearly identical. Because their composition is nearly the same, the body recognizes HFCS and sucrose as essentially the same, once digested. When it comes to satisfying one’s appetite, HFCS is as effective as sucrose. A 2007 study comparing sparkling beverages sweetened with HFCS or sucrose showed no difference in hunger, satiety or short-term energy intake. (Melanson, 2007; Monsivais, 2007)

Are there any health risks associated with the use of low- and no-calorie sweeteners?

No. Low- and no-calorie sweeteners are among the world’s most thoroughly studied food ingredients, with hundreds of studies confirming their safety. The sweeteners used in our products are safe and have been thoroughly tested. The Coca-Cola Company has an uncompromising commitment to product safety and quality, and all of the ingredients used in our products comply with regulations in the countries where our products are sold. In 2011, after reviewing two studies that had received considerable media attention, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded that these new studies do not give reason to reconsider the previous safety evaluations of aspartame or other food additive sweeteners authorized in the European Union. As is the normal practice, EFSA will continue to monitor related scientific developments in this area.

I’ve heard that the consumption of low- and no-calorie sweeteners has been linked to cancer and other illnesses. Is this true?

No. Although low- and no calorie sweeteners have been safely used and enjoyed by consumers all over the world for more than a century, some have tried to link them to cancer and other illnesses.

  • The U.S. National Cancer Institute has concluded that low- and no calorie sweeteners are not related to cancer risk in humans.
  • The American Dietetic Association says a range of both full-calorie and low- or no- calorie sweeteners can be safely enjoyed as part of a sensible, balanced diet.
  • The Managing Sweetness conferences, held with numerous experts around the globe, have clearly asserted that low-calorie and calorie-free sweeteners that are regulated by international health and food safety authorities are safe for all age groups, and are a good option for helping consumers to enjoy sweetness.
Is there a limit to the amount of low- and no-calorie sweeteners one should consume?

Independent scientists of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) have established the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for low- and no-calorie sweeteners. The ADI is an estimate of the amount of a substance that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without appreciable risk to human health. The amount of low- and no-calorie sweeteners used in foods and beverages are far below ADI levels.

How is the ADI determined?

For a specific sweetener, the ADI is based on a detailed review of all the available scientific data from both human and animal studies. The studies are designed to determine the maximum daily dietary level of the ingredient that shows no adverse effect.

Does the ADI represent a toxic level of consumption?

No. The ADI is an “acceptable” level of daily intake. The ADI includes a large margin of safety such that it is virtually certain that no harm would result even if the sweeteners are consumed at that ADI level every day for an entire lifetime. The levels of the low- and no-calorie sweeteners actually used in foods and beverages are far below the ADI level.

What are some of the ADIs for the low- and no-calorie sweeteners used in sparkling beverages?

Here are some of the ADIs, along with what this would amount to in terms of consumption of sparkling beverages:

  • Acesulfame potassium (Ace-K): 15 mg/kg or 6 mg/lb of body weight – equal to 25 cans per day of a diet soda sweetened solely with Ace-K for a 150-pound person (~70 kg bodyweight).
  • Aspartame: 50 mg/kg or 22 mg/lb of body weight – equal to 15 cans per day of a diet soda sweetened solely with aspartame for a 150-pound person (~70 kg bodyweight).
  •  Saccharin: 15 mg/kg or 6 mg/lb of body weight – equal to 9 cans per day of diet soda for a 150-pound person (~70 kg bodyweight).
  • Sucralose: 5 mg/kg or 2.2 mg/lb of body weight – equal to 5 cans per day of a diet soda sweetened solely with sucralose for a 150-pound person (~70 kg bodyweight).
  • Stevia extract: 12 mg/kg or 5.5 mg/lb of body weight – equal to 5 cans per day of a diet soda sweetened solely with sucralose for a 150-pound person (~70 kg bodyweight).
What is acesulfame potassium?

Acesulfame potassium, or “acesulfame K” or “Ace K”, was discovered in 1967. It is approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar). It is not metabolized by the body, so it contributes no calories. It is excreted from the body unchanged. It has a clean, sweet taste and generally does not exhibit any off-taste in soft drinks.

Is acesulfame potassium safe?

Yes. The U.S. FDA, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), and the Scientific Committee for Food of the European Union (SCF) reviewed the available research on acesulfame potassium and concluded that it is safe for use in foods and beverages.

In what types of products is acesulfame potassium used?

Products sweetened with acesulfame potassium can be found in nearly 90 different countries. It is used in thousands of foods and beverages, including tabletop sweeteners, desserts, puddings, baked goods, soft drinks, candies and canned foods.

What is aspartame?

Aspartame is a low-calorie sweetener composed of two amino acids, aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is 180 to 200 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar). Aspartame is digested as a protein. It is used in more than 6,000 products around the world.

Is aspartame safe?

Yes. Aspartame is one of the most thoroughly researched food ingredients in use today with numerous scientific studies confirming its safety. It is permitted for use in more than 100 countries.

  • Authorities that have approved aspartame include the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA); the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA); the European
  • Food Safety Authority (EFSA); and the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments (French Food Safety Agency - AFSSA).
  • The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reconfirmed the safety of aspartame in 2006 and in 2009. In 2010, EFSA once again reviewed the safety of aspartame and did not find any new evidence to question the safety of this ingredient.
  • In 2011, after reviewing new studies, EFSA again confirmed that aspartame and other food additive sweeteners authorized in the European Union are safe.
Can everyone consume aspartame?

No. Aspartame is safe for use by nearly all populations, including children, people with diabetes, and women who are pregnant or lactating. The only exception is that people born with phenylketonuria (PKU) cannot metabolize phenylalanine and therefore should avoid aspartame. The regulations of most countries require that food and beverage products that contain aspartame carry a statement on the label alerting people with PKU to the presence of phenylalanine.

Does aspartame cause cancer?

No. Numerous studies have been conducted on aspartame confirming its safety. It is one of the most thoroughly researched and studied food ingredients in use today. The results of these studies have demonstrated that aspartame does not cause cancer. (EFSA, 2009; U.S. FDA, 2007)

Is aspartame consumption related to brain tumors in humans?

No. There is no association between aspartame consumption and an increase in human brain tumor rates. In 2006, the U.S. National Cancer Institute examined data from over a half million retirees and concluded that “[i]ncreasing consumption of aspartame-containing beverages was not associated with the development of lymphoma, leukemia, or brain cancer.” (U.S. NCI, 2006)

In what types of products is aspartame used?

Aspartame has been used by consumers around the world for over 30 years in more than 6,000 food and beverage products, ranging from sparkling beverages and chewing gum to gelatins, candies, desserts, yogurts and sugar-free cough drops.

What is cyclamate?

Discovered in 1937, cyclamate is a low-calorie sweetener that is 30 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar). Relatively small amounts are needed to sweeten foods and beverages, so its caloric contribution to the diet is negligible.

Is cyclamate safe?

Yes. Independent scientists of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) have consistently affirmed the safety of cyclamate for use as a sweetener in foods and beverages. Cyclamate is permitted for use in foods and beverages in more than 50 countries worldwide, including Canada, Australia and Mexico.

What Coca-Cola products contain cyclamate?

In countries where it is approved for use, cyclamate is used as an ingredient in some of our products. This includes use in Coca-Cola Light, Coca-Cola Zero and Diet Coke. When used, it is listed on the product label, in the same way other sweeteners are listed on our product labels.

What is erythritol?

Erythritol is a natural sugar alcohol that is 60 percent to 70 percent as sweet as sucrose (table sugar) and has virtually no calories. It does not promote tooth decay or affect blood glucose and insulin levels. (Calorie Control Council)

Is erythritol safe?

Yes. Erythritol is permitted for use in foods and beverages in the U.S., Japan, Mexico and Brazil; additionally, petitions have been submitted to governmental agencies around the world to expand its use.

Ямар бүтээгдэхүүнд эритритолыг нэмдэг вэ?

Бид өөрийн зарим ундаанд эритритолыг стивийн хандны хамтаар чихэрлэг амт оруулагч болгон хэрэглэдэг юм.

What is neotame?

Neotame is a no-calorie sweetener. Because it is 7,000 to 13,000 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar), only a small amount is needed. It is approved for use as a sweetener in Australia, New Zealand and the United States. Neotame is used in more than 1,000 foods and beverages.

Is neotame safe?

Yes. Numerous scientific studies have been conducted to confirm the safety of neotame for all segments of the population, including children, pregnant and lactating women, and people with diabetes.

What is saccharin?

Saccharin is a no-calorie sweetener that was discovered in 1879 and has been used in foods and beverages for over 125 years. It is approximately 300 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar). Saccharin became more widely used during the sugar shortages of the two World Wars.

Is saccharin safe?

Yes. Saccharin is one of the most widely studied food ingredients and has been reviewed by numerous regulatory agencies and health organizations, including the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Saccharin is safe for all populations, including children, people with diabetes, and women who are pregnant or lactating. It is permitted in more than 100 countries around the world.

What is stevia extract?

Stevia extract is a high-purity extract that comes from the best-tasting part of the stevia leaf. It is approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar). The scientific and industry names for stevia extract used in beverages from The Coca-Cola Company are rebiana, Rebaudioside A or Reb A. These names are used interchangeably in labeling, depending on local regulations. Truvia™ is the brand name for the rebiana used in our beverages. It is a new addition to The Coca-Cola Company’s repertoire of sweeteners and is part of our innovation strategy.

Is stevia extract safe?

Yes. All of the ingredients used in Coca-Cola products are safe, meet the highest standards for quality and comply with the laws of those countries where they are offered. This is true for stevia extract as well. Under the laws enforced by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, our stevia extract is Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS). Additionally, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), an international scientific committee, has determined that various stevia extracts are safe for use in foods and beverages.

The safety of stevia extract as a general-purpose sweetener has been established based on stevia’s long history of use around the world, more than 25 years of scientific research on the sweet-tasting components in the stevia leaf and the publication of safety studies from a rigorous, comprehensive scientific research program commissioned by The Coca-Cola Company and Cargill.

Stevia has a long history of use in several countries, including Japan and Paraguay. Stevia-based sweeteners are permitted for use in many countries including the U.S., Canada, France, Mexico, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Russia, Australia, Argentina, New Zealand, Colombia, Peru, Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil, Switzerland and Malaysia.

How is stevia extract produced?

Once stevia leaves reach their peak sweetness, they are harvested and dried.

In a process similar to steeping tea, the dried stevia leaves are soaked in water to unlock the best-tasting, sweet substance found in the leaf, and then it’s purified. Many other natural ingredients and extracts are produced in a similar way, including vanilla, almond, ginger, spearmint, pistachio and cinnamon. The finished ingredient is a high-purity stevia sweetener that can be used in combination with other natural sweeteners like sucrose, honey and fruit juice to deliver great-tasting low-, no- and reduced-calorie beverages.

What is sucralose?

Sucralose is derived from sugar and is 600 times sweeter than table sugar. It does not contribute calories to the diet. Sucralose is used as an ingredient in a broad range of foods and beverages and as a tabletop sweetener under the name SPLENDA®.

Is sucralose safe?

Yes. Numerous scientific studies conducted over a 20-year period have demonstrated the safety of sucralose. These studies have been independently reviewed by experts who have agreed that sucralose is safe for everyone, including pregnant and nursing women, children and people with diabetes.

Sucralose was determined to be safe by an independent group of scientific experts at the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). In 1999, the U.S. FDA expanded the uses for sucralose, approving it as a “general purpose” sweetener, which means it can be used in any food at Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) levels.

Sucralose is permitted for use in foods and beverages in more than 40 countries, including the United States, Canada, Australia and Mexico.

Is sucralose safe for people with diabetes?

Yes. Research demonstrates that sucralose has no effect on carbohydrate metabolism, short- or long-term blood glucose control, or insulin secretion. Numerous studies have shown that sucralose can be safely consumed by people with diabetes. The American Diabetes Association has affirmed its support of low-calorie sweeteners for use by people with diabetes.

Carbonation & Health
Does drinking carbonated beverages harm bones?

No. Drinking sparkling (carbonated) beverages does not weaken your bones or cause osteoporosis. Good nutrition, adequate calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin K, as well as physical activity that includes regular weight-bearing exercise, play key roles in determining bone health.

Does the carbon dioxide in sparkling beverages cause bloating?

No. A major part of the carbon dioxide in sparkling beverages does not reach the stomach, as most of the gas escapes when the beverage container is opened. The small amount of bubbles that reach the stomach are readily and rapidly absorbed through the wall of the digestive tract. The amount of carbon dioxide absorbed by the body is relatively small compared to the amount our bodies produce naturally. (Cuomo 2009)

What effect does carbonation have on the body?

Research suggests that when a carbonated beverage first goes into the mouth, the

carbonated water excites certain receptors on the tongue and in the mouth to give a tingling sensation. (Simmons 1999; Cowart 1998)

When swallowed, a major part of the carbon dioxide in a sparkling beverage does not reach the stomach as most of the gas escapes when the beverage container is opened. The small amount of bubbles that reach the stomach are readily and rapidly absorbed through the wall of the digestive tract. The amount of carbon dioxide absorbed by the body is relatively small compared to the amount our bodies produce naturally as we use up energy.

Sometimes, the carbon dioxide is combined with swallowed air when you drink too fast, and the excess gas is simply expelled from the body in a way that causes no other problems than the social embarrassment of a burp. (Cuomo 2009)

Does carbonation have health benefits?

For centuries, carbonated beverages have been thought to help ease indigestion, but more studies are needed in this area. (Cuomo 2009, 2008, 2002)

Is the carbonation of beverage products safe?

Yes. Like other food ingredients, carbon dioxide, which is used to carbonate beverages, has been reviewed by regulatory authorities worldwide and its safety has been confirmed. Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in the atmosphere and is the natural gas we breathe out and what plants take in.

Carbonation and Sparkling Beverage
Does the carbon dioxide in carbonated beverages contain calories?

No. The carbon dioxide that is responsible for the fizz in sparkling beverages does not contain calories. It is made up of carbon and oxygen only, and as such, is not a factor in weight management. However, sparkling beverages may provide energy (calories) from sugar and other ingredients. It’s important to remember that all calories count no matter the food or beverage they come from, including those from our caloric beverages.

How is carbon dioxide added to a beverage?

Naturally carbonated waters have been consumed for centuries, but it wasn’t until halfway through the 19th century that the carbonation process became commercialized and sparkling beverages started to appear around the world. Today, The Coca-Cola Company and other beverage makers use equipment to push carbon dioxide into liquid.

How do the bubbles stay in the package?

Sparkling beverages stay fizzy while the container is unopened because the seals are

designed to prevent the carbon dioxide from leaking out. The gas is trapped inside and released when you open a container of your favorite sparkling beverage. If you leave the closure off for too long, the beverage will go “flat” – meaning, the carbon dioxide bubbles are gone and the characteristic “bite” is lost from the taste experience. At The Coca-Cola Company, our filling and sealing process is carried out on equipment that ensures that the amount of time a package is left open is only a fraction of a second. This technique has stayed the same for more than 200 years.

How does carbonation affect the taste of a sparkling beverage?

Experts at The Coca-Cola Company have studied carbonation, and how the different components work to enhance the taste and refreshment of sparkling beverages. Some research suggests that when a carbonated beverage first goes into the mouth, the carbonated water excites certain receptors on the tongue to give a tingling feeling. (Cowart 1998)

The tiny little bubbles inside each container of Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta and other sparkling beverages from The Coca-Cola Company create an immediate sensory impact from the first sip. In fact, one study looking at the effect carbonation has on taste suggests it can enhance how we perceive sweet and salty food. (Cuomo 2002)

The unique flavor profile and refreshing quality of a sparkling beverage is at its best when there is a good balance of carbonation in the drink. Once the beverage goes flat, the carbon dioxide bubbles gone, and the characteristic “bite” is lost from the taste experience.

Does drinking caffeinated or sparkling beverages weaken my bones or cause osteoporosis?

No, drinking caffeinated or sparkling beverages does not weaken your bones or cause osteoporosis. Risk factors for osteoporosis listed by the International Osteoporosis Foundation include age, female gender, family history, menopause, poor nutrition, insufficient calcium and vitamin D intakes, insufficient exercise, low body mass index (being too thin), smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.

Has scientific research shown that sparkling beverages can hurt my bones?

No. For more than fifteen years, a series of scientific and patient-advocacy organizations have studied whether the phosphorus and/or caffeine in sparkling beverages has any impact on bone health and concluded that there is no negative effect in healthy individuals as long as their calcium intake is sufficient.

Phosphorus
What is phosphorus?

Phosphorus is a mineral found widely in nature and plays an important role in how our bodies get energy. It is a major component of bones and teeth. Phosphoric acid, which contains phosphorus, is used as a preservative in a variety of foods and beverages. A small amount is used to add a tangy taste to some colas. You can find phosphorus in milk, cheese, meat, bread, bran, breakfast cereals, eggs, nuts, fish,100 percent juice, juice drinks, soy-based beverages, soft drinks, low-calorie soft drinks and sports drinks.

What is the daily recommended intake for phosphorus?

The World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations have not established a recommended daily intake amount for phosphorus, but some countries have. For example, the United Kingdom has set their Reference Nutrient Intake for phosphorus at 550 mg/day for adults, not including women who are pregnant or lactating (9). The U.S. Institute of Medicine has set a Recommended Dietary Allowance for phosphorus at 700 mg per day for all adults over age 18, including pregnant and lactating women.

How much phosphorus is in sparkling beverages?

Sparkling beverages add only very small amounts of phosphorus to the diet through phosphoric acid, an ingredient that helps give cola drinks their tangy taste. A glass (240 mL [8 fl. oz.]) of Coca-Cola provides 41 mg of phosphorus. By comparison, the same amount of milk has about 200 mg of phosphorus, one cup of cooked chicken (140 grams) has about 230 mg of phosphorus, and one cup of cooked white rice (150 grams) has about 90 mg of phosphorus

I've heard that phosphoric acid in sparkling beverages acts differently in your body than the phosphorus found in other foods. Is this true?

No. When you consume phosphoric acid from a cola or any other sparkling beverage, it is digested in the stomach and absorbed by the body as phosphate. This is the same as for phosphorus from any other food. Phosphorus from meat, cheese, nuts, or grains also enters the body as phosphate following digestion. For this reason, phosphoric acid is considered as another source of phosphorus and is counted toward the total dietary intake of phosphorus.

The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has set the Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake level (MTDI) of phosphorus at 70 mg/kg body weight. This includes phosphorus from all sources. For the "average" 70 kg man, that would equal 4900 mg phosphorus/day. A glass (240 mL [8 fl. oz.]) of Coca-Cola provides 41 mg of phosphorus.

Vitamins
Is vitamin D deficiency really a problem?

Increased awareness of the importance of vitamin D has led to concern about the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency worldwide and scientific experts are advocating for increasing the recommended intake levels.

  • A principal scientist with The Coca-Cola Company analyzed dietary intake data from U.S. dietary intake surveys and found that less than 10 percent of U.S. adults between ages 51 and 70 met their daily vitamin D requirements through the food they ate alone . That number fell to two percent for people over 70 years of age. The study also found that the lowest dietary intakes of vitamin D were reported by female teenagers and female adults.
  • More recently, a noted vitamin D researcher has described vitamin D deficiency as a “pandemic,” stating that it is “one of the most common undiagnosed medical conditions in the world” .
  •  Another researcher has documented that vitamin D deficiency extreme enough to lead to rickets and osteomalacia “is high in many parts of the world”.
I’ve read vitamin K is also important for supporting strong, healthy bones. Is this true?

Yes. Studies have suggested that having adequate vitamin K in the body is associated with better bone status in both adults and children (15-21). Our bodies need Vitamin K for proper mineralization of bone, a process of binding calcium to bone matrix to build strong and rigid bones. Like calcium and vitamin D, vitamin K is also an important bone nutrient that helps keep your bones strong.

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